Enterprise Ethereum is a private variation of the Ethereum blockchain. Here’s a guide that will dissect the goal, architecture, use cases, and real-world implications of Enterprise Ethereum.
In a world where blockchain technology is booming, it’s evident that many enterprise blockchain companies would step up in the game. If you have been around blockchain for some time, you just know about Ethereum. Previously public Ethereum already had made their statement with a cutting-edge networking environment.
However, their public properties kept them away from the reach of many enterprises. But now, with Enterprise Ethereum, they can conquer the enterprise world as well. Today, we’ll dig a little deeper into the core of Enterprise Ethereum. So, let’s see what it’s offering us this time!
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Table of Contents
What Is Enterprise Ethereum?
Enterprise Ethereum is the private or permissioned blockchain version of the public Ethereum codebase. Many people know Ethereum as the public network transacting billions of dollars within the blockchain network. However, many of you don’t know that Ethereum is also another popular network that enterprises use on a daily basis. And this is where the enterprise Ethereum comes into play.
Even though these private chains are separated from the public instances, they can still take advantage of the public Ethereum network as well.
However, there isn’t any single product for the enterprise Ethereum. Instead, providers offer enterprise Ethereum by modifying the already existing Ethereum clients according to the need of the enterprise. So, all of the private networks would have different outcomes based on the requirements.
For example, some enterprises may want high scalability in their enterprise Ethereum, while others may not need it. Furthermore, these requirements mainly contain – performance, permissions, privacy, scalability, and governance.
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How Does Enterprise Ethereum Work?
Enterprise Ethereum stays true to their public blockchain network; however, there are added permission features along with identity management to offer a permissioned network. Moreover, it increases the privacy level with private P2P transactions to increase scalability and performance. Furthermore, it also introduces different consensus algorithms other than proof of work.
So, Enterprise Ethereum won’t actually face the same problems as the public Ethereum, such as privacy and scaling issues. Furthermore, they can transact even faster than the typical 15-20 transactions per second speed of public Ethereum.
Well, it’s because in Enterprise Ethereum, you can change the network size, block size, and even the gas limit. It’s not that you have to stick to gas to run the blockchain network, but it’s still possible to keep this feature.
Another great fact is that the network sizing really makes a huge difference as many enterprises have a closed environment. Moreover, this means it will only allow minimal participants in the system. That’s why you get more scalability and privacy in enterprise Ethereum.
But don’t worry; all your transactions would remain private as well, as long as your blockchain architecture has the feature.
The Enterprise Ethereum Alliance happens to be the front runner for the enterprise Ethereum blockchain. Furthermore, according to them, enterprise Ethereum is nothing more than just an extension to the public Ethereum. Therefore, it means public Ethereum will get a lot of add-ons and have enterprise solution extensions to make work privately as well.
So, in this case, they are adding authentication for entering the network. Also, they are using permissions for viewing the ledger. It’s because not all the participants would be able to see what other users are transacting in the ledger.
What is The Enterprise Ethereum alliance?
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance is a member-driven organization that offers open-source development of Enterprise Ethereum according to organizations’ needs. EEA is a non-profit organization launched back in March 2017.
At present, EEA has 300+ member companies under their bags. All of these members collaborate to advance the Ethereum implementation within industries. Not only that, but they also have their influence in 45+ countries along with having 1400+ individual members!
Moreover, to streamline the enterprise Ethereum project, the enterprise Ethereum alliance members have 19 legal advisories and professional industry groups.
So, you would get the best of the best tech support with legalizing your enterprise Ethereum solutions. One of the main targets of enterprise Ethereum alliance members is to harmonize consumers and businesses with interoperability worldwide.
Furthermore, enterprise Ethereum alliance members consist of businesses, developers, innovators, adopters, and leaders. So, you will get the perfect solution for your company. Obviously, every collaboration within the enterprise Ethereum alliance members is open-sourced. Therefore, in the long run, it will benefit all sorts of companies.
Another fun fact is, the Enterprise Ethereum alliance works on governmental companies as well.
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Primary Aim of Enterprise Ethereum Alliance
The enterprise Ethereum alliance wants to build a private version of the public Ethereum blockchain. Furthermore, it will be for eligible members that specify their needs properly. Basically, they have four primary aims –
Open-Source Standard Instead of a Product
EEA wants to make enterprise Ethereum an open-source standard, not just a commercial product. This way, any industry can use this standard to develop technologies. The building, promoting, and broadly supporting any Ethereum-based technology happens to fall under this category.
But why are they making it a standard instead of a product? There are possible reasons for this.
First of all, making it a product limits its possibilities. A product will too many features for every sector makes it difficult to control and even more difficult to maintain security. Not to mention the higher costing for unnecessary features that many sectors don’t even need.
On the other hand, if the enterprise Ethereum alliance members-only offer standards, best practices, and reference architecture, innovators can easily use that to structure their model.
For example, it will enable banks to get their own enterprise Ethereum as their internal network. Similarly, other participants can also implement their own enterprise blockchain for supply chain management.
Furthermore, as its open-source, any company making a codebase that can also be used in another company will get shared. This is the kind of coordination that they want to develop and facilitate within the enterprise Ethereum members.
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Govern and Facilitate Cross-Industry Development
EEA would govern any type of Enterprise Ethereum deployment and facilitate it according to the enterprise requirements. Furthermore, this assistance in deployment would also encourage innovators to come up with great ideas.
Governing enterprise requirements definitely help out in this matter, as many companies can’t quite grasp the nature of the blockchain. However, if enterprise Ethereum alliance members take the governing position, then many companies would get premium quality support. Furthermore, enterprise Ethereum alliance members can also make sure that the companies are following the ERC standards accordingly.
In the end, this will offer more for consumers. For example, maybe one bank implemented a KYC platform on Enterprise Ethereum. So, in this case, the enterprise Ethereum members would help to do the same thing for another company. Ultimately, it will save up a lot of time in the development cost.
Evolve Side by Side with the Public Ethereum
Enterprise Ethereum will evolve in parallel to the public Ethereum. It will also get the best features from the public blockchain of Ethereum. This process makes sure that any updates in the public version will automatically be on the private blockchain as well.
So, you won’t have to worry about adding the feature separately to your platform. Furthermore, enterpriser, Ethereum alliance members would take care of the updating process entirely. In reality, it means it’s a hassle-free solution. Obviously, you will get the option not to add the feature if the feature goes against your network’s nature.
Anyway, the public Ethereum will also get lucrative features to form the private enterprise Ethereum if needed. Hence, both versions will benefit from each other and would be able to use dApps in both versions.
So, the dApp development guide was made for public Ethereum. It will also support enterprise Ethereum as well. The enterprise Ethereum alliance will make sure that.
Use Existing Standards
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance members would facilitate all the experience from old standards into the new enterprise Ethereum blockchain. It also wants to harness blockchain open-source standards from other developments as well. But how would that help out?
In reality, the public blockchain was released in 2015, so within 3+ years, it did have a lot of experience than the private version of the enterprise Ethereum alliance. That’s why if they gather all the information and experience from the old version, they can surely make an improved private version.
Furthermore, enterprise Ethereum alliance members don’t want to lack in any way. Standing out is enterprise Ethereum alliance members a top priority. That’s why they need all the experience they can leverage.
Furthermore, another major point is that other blockchain companies also have great blockchain standards. If enterprise Ethereum alliance members leverage those as well, they can offer the supreme blockchain experience.
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Benefits of Enterprise Ethereum
Enterprise Ethereum blockchain is low-cost, flexible, open, and suited for business between multiple enterprises. Furthermore, when it comes to coordinating data, the enterprise Ethereum blockchain does act like a typically distributed layer.
But it happens to come with a unique architecture that enables enterprises to integrate it into their system. Furthermore, this layer creates new possibilities and strengthens the system for exclusive businesses.
But enterprise Ethereum members would get more features than these. Let’s see what they will really get from the enterprise Ethereum blockchain –
All of the deployments of Enterprise Ethereum are completely open-source. So, any company or enterprise can fully utilize the enterprise Ethereum blockchain freely. As its open-source, developers can make changes to the code or add features accordingly.
Moreover, open-source technologies have faster bug issues solved.
Enterprise Ethereum’s architecture preserves data coordination among all the network participants. Furthermore, enterprise Ethereum members would get better data allocation and trust among all the participants.
In reality, it will allow them to not depend on a central authority. Moreover, it will also allow the enterprise Ethereum members to manage the system accordingly without interference. This is another one of the benefits of blockchain technology.
Backed by blockchain as a service provider, Enterprise Ethereum offers easy and faster deployment of blockchain technology. Furthermore, blockchain as a service provider like Kaleido or Azure makes it more convenient to easily deploy enterprise Ethereum blockchain networks.
Moreover, these solutions do make it very simple, as you won’t have to code everything from scratch. That saves up a lot of time and energy, along with resources.
With Enterprise Ethereum blockchain, you will get special permissioned networks and even consortium environments with public Ethereum features. In reality, this is one of the significant differences with the public version of Ethereum.
In most cases, the network architecture allows privileged enterprise Ethereum members to work as a gatekeeper. So, it means that the person can stop executions and even control who will access the network environment.
Moreover, these private enterprise Ethereum blockchain instances are perfectly suitable for any use cases. There’s a distinct difference between permissioned and permissionless blockchain.
The Mainnet is capable of handling large network sizes, although most of the enterprise deployments aren’t using many nodes to run the system. However, it’s fully capable of handling hundreds of nodes at once without slowing down. Furthermore, you can even go for millions of users under one network environment. Mainnet in cryptocurrency can mean a totally different thing.
But there is a concern on whether it’s only theoretical or practical. As we already said that many are only working with few nodes, such as ten nodes. So, technically there isn’t any reference to a viable and vast network system.
Obviously, it’s a critical factor as enterprise consortia are typically vaster network systems. Therefore, they would need more maintenance.
Enterprise Ethereum blockchain can achieve different levels of privacy using private consortia and private transaction layering protocol.
Furthermore, this feature will ensure that all enterprise Ethereum members can operate in full privacy without disclosing any transactional information. Moreover, it’s also an extension to the previous public Ethereum.
Many Ethereum based applications also offer this option now. If you are confused with whether enterprise Ethereum is capable of handling your private transactions, rest assured because it can. This is a perfect example of how Ethereum is taking on other technologies like Hyperledger to prevail in the enterprise industries.
Curious about knowing the differences between Hyperledger and Ethereum? Here’s a comparison guide to Hyperledger vs Ethereum that will help you to understand how they work.
Scalability and Performance
With customized consensus, block time, and gas limit, enterprise Ethereum blockchain can outperform public Ethereum. Not to mention, it can scale hundreds of transactions within a second. It introduces some new consensus mechanisms such as proof of authority, proof of elapsed time, etc.
In reality, you must know that public Ethereum works on proof of stake, the proof of work can’t satisfy all those needs being a flawed consensus.
That’s why they introduced customized consensus for enterprise Ethereum members. Other protocols, such as sharding or off-chain computation, also increase the overall throughput.
Enterprise Ethereum blockchain comes with network instances to make sure all transactions are immediately final without any tampering. Furthermore, it’s one of the most wanted enterprise needs of all. Finality creates confidence and trust among business partners.
With an improved consensus mechanism, it’s not entirely impossible to have immediate finality anymore. So, now all enterprise Ethereum members can enjoy instant transaction finality without any worries.
The incentive layer punishes fraudulence activity and promotes good user behavior. In reality, this layer is necessary because the network needs to be fully secured from the inside and the outside.
If internal employees or enterprise Ethereum members act fraudulently, then it needs to have consequences. Furthermore, this initiative makes the participants follow the rules correctly and get good rewards in terms of their actions.
Enterprises can tokenize any asset on the enterprise Ethereum architecture to streamline their business. So, what does it mean for your company? It means you won’t be bound only to use Ethereum tokens to fuel your network. Asset tokenization is now a completely varied thing, and it also includes major fiat currencies.
It mainly refers to financial intuitions as they need to work independently without the shackles of only one token. For example, a real estate enterprise can tokenize real estate’s assets and use that on the network. It’s somewhat a digital format of any kind asset.
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Enterprise Ethereum defines the structural components as standards to help fast deployment. Furthermore, the specific standard helps out the enterprise Ethereum members to keep the network fresh and solid.
Protocols such as token design (ERC20), decentralized storage (Swarm), human-readable names (ENS), and decentralized messaging (Whisper) helps out the ecosystem.
Moreover, with the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain, you would get more new standards to use in your new application.
There would be no vendor lock-in. So, users would be able to operate private blockchains in any business cloud environment. Usually, in the case of vendors dealing with the software, they tend to have lock-ins.
It’s not a good strategy and doesn’t promote openness or collaborations. However, it’s not the same case for enterprise Ethereum. For example, enterprise Ethereum members can use Amazon web services on Kaleido’s blockchain business cloud.
All enterprises will be able to get blockchain implementation at a lower cost. This way, no organization will feel burdened with unnecessary price tags. It’s an important aspect to consider. Even though enterprises have the capability to invest a lot of money still, in the long run, it could become a burden too.
But as enterprise Ethereum doesn’t have a high price range, it’s easier for you to deploy your blockchain using it.
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Architecture Stack of the Enterprise Ethereum Blockchain
The architecture stack is a bit different than the typical web 3.0 blockchain technology stack. Let’s see what Ethereum consists of.
The application layer is the first layer of the enterprise Ethereum stack. Furthermore, it sits on top of it. The layer contains all the components used on top of the core layer in the enterprise Ethereum stack.
It contains three sublayers –
- ÐApps Sublayer
- Infrastructure Contracts and Standards Sublayer
- Smart Contract Tools Sublayer
We’ll discuss every layer of the enterprise Ethereum stack to give you a better understanding of the private network.
Let’s start with DApp sublayer. This later contains all the decentralized application that runs on top of enterprise Ethereum private blockchain. Furthermore, the decentralized applications may use the JSON-RPC API enterprise Ethereum extension to function.
Moreover, you would also find many tools for monitoring blockchain, blockchain explorers, and business intelligence tools within the sublayer.
Therefore, the topmost layer contains mainly all kinds of decentralized application that uses core enterprise Ethereum extensions.
Infrastructure Contracts and Standards Sublayer
The Infrastructure Contracts and Standards sublayer contains all the emerging standards for the core enterprise Ethereum stack. Furthermore, this layer also offers enablers for a different application built on the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain.
It contains a few elements. Let’s take a look at them, shall we?
- Decentralized Identity Standards: Decentralized Identity Foundation (DIF) develops different decentralized identity standards. Using these, you can store the digital identities of the participants in the enterprise Ethereum stack.
- Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): This control system is mainly for authentication. Furthermore, it also helps the network restrict any unwanted users. So, the only authorized person can enter the system leading to an enterprise Ethereum private blockchain.
- Network Governance: The network governance model actually makes sure who enters the network and who can’t. Moreover, you can give access to specific nodes to specific parts of the network. In reality, it also ensures safeguarding exchanges.
- Token Standards: There are many token standards available on the interfaces. Usually, you would use the token economy using these standards. These mainly include – [ERC-20], [ERC-721], [ERC-621], [ERC-827], and [ERC-223].
- Ethereum Name Service: The ENS offers a secure mapping procedure for the users’ human-readable and simple names. So, instead of only having Ethereum addresses, you can have names for both off and on-chain features.
Smart Contract Tools Sublayer
Enterprise Ethereum private blockchain is getting the smart contract tools from the public Ethereum. Furthermore, this includes all kinds of smart contract tools such as debuggers, compilers, associated parsers, languages, and even methods for formal verification.
However, it doesn’t end here. There’s more where these came from! Any kind of enterprise Ethereum stack implementation needs to offer debugging and deployment tools for the enterprise Ethereum members.
For example, typically, the public Ethereum has Truffle and Remix, smart contacts debugging, and deployment tools. Also, every implementation is compelled to extend the formal verification method for the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain.
But how does the enterprise Ethereum stack use these tools? Well, for that, there are many components in the execution Sublayer. Moreover, using that equipment, the smart contract tools function. We’ll talk about the execution sublayer later in the article.
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It comes with APIs for communicating with clients. The primary API JSON-RPC is needed for submitting transactions and deploying Ethereum smart contracts. Furthermore, other APIs call external services and maintain inter-blockchain operations. In short, it comes with three sublayers. Let’s see what they are –
- Permissions and Credentials Sublayer
- Integration and Deployment Tools Sublayer
- Client Interfaces Sublayer
Now let’s see what each of them includes.
Permissions and Credentials Sublayer
Here, permissioning refers to the capability of any node to join the blockchain network. Furthermore, it also illustrates to individuals for performing specific roles on the enterprise Ethereum stack. For example, only some chosen nodes will be able to work as validators. On the other hand, other participants may be able to instantiate smart contracts.
Enterprise Ethereum stack also offers enterprise Ethereum private blockchain with private transactions. However, there are different levels of privacy within the stack. Typically, these include node connectivity permissioning, store private transactions, relay messages, controlling what others see, participation permissioning, etc.
It also includes cryptographic encryption for the protection of transactional data.
There are some standards or rules you need to follow while implementing an enterprise Ethereum stack. Check out some of these rules for the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain.
Enterprise Ethereum stack implementations need to specify right from the start the list of peers who would act as the nodes.
All the enterprise Ethereum blockchain needs to offer the ability to enable and disabling peer to peer connections.
Furthermore, it also needs to specify which nodes can join the network in the whitelist. Similarly, they need to have a blacklist of the nodes that can’t enter the enterprise Ethereum stack.
You can even specify specific nodes in the whitelist using an interface. For example, it could be a smart contract transaction or using an API. Moreover, the same rule goes for the blacklist as well. So, you will be able to specify the whitelist and blacklist nodes using an interface.
However, any enterprise Ethereum stack always has to offer a way to certify all the nodes on the network. It’s basically for security and privacy reasons.
Certifying Node Identities
How do you certify a node? You can keep a dedicated smart contract for whitelisting nodes. The same goes for blacklisting nodes as well. Furthermore, you can keep another smart contract for those blacklisted ones.
Also, as the entry fee, you can enable a certain costing such as the amount of Ethereum gas for entering the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain. However, it isn’t mandatory. The whitelisting and blacklisting should do the trick.
The enterprise Ethereum private blockchain also offers a specific mechanism for defining a cluster of nodes doing a particular work.
There are certain Ethereum accounts that you need to maintain too! So, for that, Enterprise Ethereum private blockchain is giving a whitelist to maintain them. However, it will all come down to the factor of whether or not you need Ethereum accounts for your enterprise smart contract use cases.
If you want to implement it, then you need to do it through an interface such as using an API or smart contract.
Integration and Deployment Tools Sublayer
Enterprise Ethereum private blockchain will offer integration libraries. This is for enabling more convenience for interaction using different language bindings.
Furthermore, there are some integration libraries for that such as REST API, [protocol-buffers], [Nethereum], [web3.js], and [web3j].
Enterprise Management Systems
To make sure you can fully integrate the enterprise management system, there are certain enterprise-ready capabilities. Moreover, these are some common techniques, libraries, APIs, etc.
This isn’t the only solution for enterprises in the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain. In reality, all of these capabilities include the ability to –
- Deploy using the enterprise configuration system and remote software deployment systems.
- Help to change the configurations on a deployed network.
- Audit the configurations on the deployed Ethereum network.
The management system further adds an enterprise-ready software fault reporting system for quickly addressing any faults within the system. These mainly include:
- Keep records of software fault conditions.
- Generate events to manage all the software faults.
- Accept all the diagnostic commands from the management system and run an analysis.
Client Interfaces Sublayer
There are many cases where smart contracts would need to get real-world information to execute it. But how will it get it? Well, here comes the blockchain oracles to save the day. In reality, Oracle bridge the gap between the internal network and the outside world.
So, using oracles, smart contracts mainly communicate with the real world for collecting information.
Furthermore, it’s language-independent, meaning you can easily read and write using this data-interchange format.
However, JSON-RPC API is mainly used for linking the decentralized application to the Ethereum clients in the enterprise Ethereum private blockchain.
As there are many kinds of blockchain deployment using different ledgers and protocols, inter-chain intermediaries are necessary if you want to allow interaction within the blockchain networks. Furthermore, when other enterprise solutions offer scalability and privacy, inter-chain could be on layer 2, where it can communicate with the public Ethereum and enjoy all the benefits.
So, it’s best to go for an inter-chain implementation so that you can easily leverage the capabilities of the public blockchain.
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Privacy and Scaling Layer
This the third main layer of the enterprise Ethereum architecture. It also comes with two sublayers. They are –
- Privacy Sublayer
- Scaling Sublayer
Let’s check out how these sublayers actually work!
Privacy, in this regard, means the ability to keep the information confidential while transacting with another or multiple persons. Furthermore, it will also give you the ability to choose what data to disclose while you are transacting with another person.
Enterprise Ethereum solutions would offer a private transaction option like other enterprise blockchain solutions. Furthermore, you can reach privacy on various levels, such as connectivity permissions or user-level permissions. So, in short, you’ll be able to control who can see these private transactions even if they did not participate in the transaction itself.
Any enterprise would have a demand for handling a higher transaction rate and perform heavy computational tasks. However, it does require a lot of scaling, doesn’t it? That’s why there are various methods for increasing the transaction rate without affecting the network in a bad way.
There are mainly two kinds of scaling on-chain and off-chain. Let’s see what they are –
On-chain scaling mainly occurs at layer 1 of the enterprise Ethereum architecture. What it does is that it changes the Ethereum protocol to suit the transactional needs better.
The off-chain scaling happens on layer 2 of the architecture stack of the enterprise Ethereum solutions. However, in this case, it doesn’t change the Ethereum protocol for handling more transactions.
The trick here is to improve the on-chain scaling using both layer 1 and layer 2 protocols to reach an optimum transaction rate.
Core Blockchain Layer
Next comes the core blockchain layer, which comes with three sublayers. Furthermore, all of these layers are responsible for storage, consensus, and specific function execution on the network. These are –
- Storage and Ledger Sublayer
- Execution Sublayer
- Consensus Sublayer
Let’s see how these really work together and make up the enterprise Ethereum architecture.
Storage and Ledger Sublayer
All enterprise Ethereum solutions offer data storage services for operating the public Ethereum client. However, you may get the option for additional storage, mainly for off-chain computations.
For example, many enterprise Ethereum solutions locally store caches gotten from Oracle or store other information relevant to the system protocols. In other cases, they could be beyond these specifications.
If any Ethereum solution supports multiple networks, it offers data storage for private transactions within the multiple networks. Furthermore, any smart contract that is operating on the private network needs to have access to other private state contracts. However, you definitely would need to be a participator in that contract.
Thus, anyone operating on the private network would not get access to other smart contracts running on that network if he/she is not a part of it. Furthermore, all enterprise Ethereum solutions offer transparent and seamless storage for smart private contracts that need to store documentation. Moreover, this process gets rid of the off-chain file storage add-ons.
In reality, all the storage options have a higher level of cryptographic hashing linked to them. So, anyone storing any kind of information using smart contracts would have Authenticated Encryption with Additional Data algorithm protecting them.
We have to say that not every Ethereum implementation would have a similar architecture. Therefore, there could be an option for any provider to offer more APIs for storage facilities. It will mainly depend on your organizational needs.
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In this sublayer, Ethereum offers a smart contract execution environment. Furthermore, it’s similar to public EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine). However, they are also introducing extensions beyond the public EVM environment. As now the environment has a private channel, it’s best to make sure that EVM is fully capable of handling it.
Another great factor is the ability to synchronize public states based on the public Ethereum nodes. It truly opens up new opportunities for the private enterprise Ethereum to work with the public one as well.
Also, it supports a series of storage facilities along with the compilation and execution of the precompiled contracts. In reality, trusted computing will ensure that only authorized users can use the smart contract within a certain consortium network’s execution environment.
So, many enterprise Ethereum implementation will offer this feature as well. To make it more secure, multiple encryption processes would be used to protect all trusted computation data. However, you will be able to configure many conjunctions within the consortium network.
Hyperledger Fabric is another platform that directly competes with Ethereum. Here’s a comparison guide to Hyperledger Fabric vs Ethereum that you should check out.
What is Ethereum Virtual Machine?
Well, talk a little bit about what Ethereum Virtual machine is, really. If you don’t know what it is by now, then it’s best to catch up from here.
Practically, Ethereum is one kind of programmable blockchain network. However, instead of giving users some predefined operations, it offers the freedom to create their very own complex operations. In this way, it operates as a core blockchain platform for numerous decentralized finance applications. Furthermore, this isn’t typically limited to only cryptocurrencies.
In reality, Ethereum does have a narrow sense of some protocol suits that’s make up the whole network environment. In the center of all of it lies the Ethereum Virtual Machine. This machine can execute codes of arbitrary algorithmic complexity.
As Ethereum is a peer-to-peer network protocol, many nodes update the database on the network. As a result, all the nodes use the same instruction on the EVM to execute those objectives.
It’s the last sublayer of the core blockchain layer, and it deals with the consensus protocols of the network. The first change you will see here is the use of multiple consensus algorithms. In reality, the public Ethereum actually used only the Proof of Work algorithm. However, it isn’t suitable for enterprises. So, that’s why they introduced other algorithms.
In fact, sidechains also support the use of multiple consensuses. To keep things simpler, you can specify what consensus algorithms will run in the private blockchain, public blockchain, and sidechain during the primary configuration phase.
However, everything is still in process, so nothing is determined at the moment. Moreover, it phases out Proof of Work and replace it with other methods such as Proof of Stake, Byzantine-Fault-Tolerance, etc.
It’s the last layer of the enterprise Ethereum architecture. This layer contains only one sublayer called the Network Protocol Sublayer. Basically, in the network layer, there would be a peer-to-peer network protocol, which will allow users to communicate with each other. At present, they have DEVp2p protocol, but in the future, they would add additional P2P protocols to offer higher security measures.
Network Protocol Sublayer
These protocols define how the nodes will communicate with each other within the new private channels. Every node in the network would need to have identification and would use Ethereum enode URL format to get advertised in the enterprise Ethereum architecture.
Furthermore, messaging uses DEVp2p Wire Protocol, which establishes a communication channel between nodes. It further uses a high-layer protocol to mask the channel from anyone interfering. These high-layer protocols are called capability protocols.
For example, the Ethereum Wire Protocol will help in exchanging transactions and block information within two peer users who are transacting. However, they may add more protocols in the enterprise Ethereum architecture to extend the feature to accommodate organizations better.
In the case of many point-to-point communications happen on the network, any private node would be able to send their transactional data information to multiple private nodes at once.
Relaying Private Transaction Data
In reality, when there are multiple persons in a private smart contract, it won’t be required to communicate with all of them separately and directly. It’s quite impractical in the case of enterprises. Especially when there’s a large number of nodes on the network.
Some common nodes in this regard will be able to synchronize the private transactions transparently within the enterprise Ethereum architecture. Thus, using the same technique, all smart private contracts can sync up without any issues at all.
What Are The Possible Enterprise Ethereum Use Cases?
Banking and Finance
It’s a bit of a stretch when it comes to banking industries. In reality, the cost of offering availability, reliability, and resilience is quite high because it needs to fight equipment failures and attacks. Just imagine a scenario where a countries central bank’s server went down. As a result, the Country’s overall payment clearing system would massively fail.
Furthermore, there are also large corporations that spend nearly $200 million each year on cybersecurity. On the other hand, there are reconciliation payments (balancing between different accounts sets) that are also inefficient and byzantine.
So, not everything is running quite smoothly as we expected. Even a single transaction could take multiple transaction moves before finalizing the payment. In reality, all the burden of keeping everything uptight falls on the banks entirely.
However, enterprise Ethereum use cases can save the banking system being the shining knight as it is. If a blockchain in payment system would work within a decentralized environment like the enterprise Ethereum, then there would be no point of failure. Furthermore, it won’t matter even if there is one or more server disruption; a bank can keep making payments without any issues.
Moreover, this way, banks can easily transfer directly, which reduces friction, and there’s no chance of double-spending. Using the ledger, they can also get regulatory reporting. So, in case of any fraudulent activities, they can quickly find the truth.
Nowadays, global supply chains need to support everything from food and beverage to consumer goods. However, their infrastructure of maintaining all of it needs a lot of polishing up to do. Furthermore, these channels are more or less inefficient, exploitative, and even poorly tracked.
As a result, many consumers, let alone enterprises face utter difficulty to account for almost half of the costs needed for it. According to a recent study, over 20% of all the seafood labeled in the USA is actually mislabeled.
Many other consumer products also face difficulties in their supply chain management because of the illegal person’s exploitation. Another issue is counterfeit products, which not only harms the consumers but also decreases the brand value.
In this situation, enterprise Ethereum permanent ledger of a transaction would definitely help out the supply chain. Moreover, as the relative users would be able to see every little movement in different stages, it would be a blast. That’s why enterprise Ethereum use cases excel in blockchain for supply chain management.
Other than these, tracking products from the source to the customer along with streamlining distributors, suppliers, and retailers are a few of the perks.
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Wind farms and solar panels are proving to be a good source of energy; however, storing this energy creates a new problem for the energy grid. Typically, the energy grid isn’t that capable of handling all the distribution of these energies. Let along prevent any damages or overvoltage. That’s why it in dire need of a chance.
In recent years, the wide usage of wind turbines and solar panels gives out a perfect opportunity to build a durable and transactive, sustainable power grid system. So, in this case, blockchain in utility based power delivery system would create a long-term solution for the consumers as well as the enterprise.
Furthermore, if they can introduce storing energy locally and trading, it would cut a lot of costs from the utility bills. Moreover, it’s a great way to automate billing methods and settlement. However, one of the prominent features is the continuous flow of energy that is a dire need, and enterprise Ethereum use cases are a perfect solution for it.
Identity is one of the crucial aspects of our lives. Every Country and every civilian need to have its very own identification to enjoy certain facilities. Not only the government but it’s also connected to the digital world. However, as many enterprises have to deal with multiple identities at once, it becomes difficult for them to offer better security.
As a result, there are breaches, data hacks, and identity thefts all around the globe. Furthermore, these are extremely bad situations where the perpetrator could do illegal work with another person’s identity. Not only will that person face issues, but the perpetrators’ identity remains unknown.
To deal with it, enterprise Ethereum use cases can come to the rescue. In reality, the system is fully capable of handling digital identity management and storage. Not only it offers a secure ledger system for storage, but it also redesigns the government structure with paperless identification.
Furthermore, you can also make these portable and use them in any place needed. It makes it way more convenient than paper-based identifications.
Currently, real estate markets face three main issues – inferior liquidity, transaction costs, and inaccessibility. Due to the extremely high pricing, the wealthy get to enjoy real estate benefits while the other classes of people find it difficult to even invest in them.
On the other hand, even if someone does try to invest in real estate, it takes a lot of intermediaries to get things done. Moreover, all these paper-based documents create a single point of failure. Therefore, many consumers face a slow process with bad players trying to rip them off.
That’s why real estate needs an enterprise Ethereum solution to help it out. Enterprise Ethereum use cases are well equipped to handle all the burdens of this sector. Not only will it get rid of the middleman, but it will also increase the liquidity. Furthermore, with the proper blockchain for real estate ledger systems, the costing will lower down, giving the middle classes a chance at it.
Ethereum also supports tokenization, so people can easily buy and sell their properties on the ledger using tokens.
Governments are held to account for different economic standards as well as reassure consumer and citizen confidence. Not only that but also governments need to maintain market efficiency, infrastructure, and businesses.
However, as they run on legacy networks, things are still quite obsolete. There are many bad players among the government who exploit these old systems and get their way. In reality, the citizens are losing faith in their government and not getting all their rights fulfilled accordingly.
The immediate solution for all of these issues would be to go paperless completely. A paperless blockchain for government solutions has less chance of getting exploited. Moreover, enterprise Ethereum use cases can surely help them out.
More effective it can help out in –
- Process visa applications
- License renewals
- Bill payments
- Reducing paper load
- Getting rid of duplication errors
- Less document processing time
Furthermore, a blockchain-based identity for the citizen can help everyone mage portable identities everywhere quite easily.
International Trade and Commodities
Through rapid globalization, standard trade finance cannot digitize and standardize all of the record tracking systems. Furthermore, every exchange comes with its own set of unique regulations, certification requirements, and shipping specifications.
Moreover, they all need to have a proper management system, as well. Other than this, many border jurisdictions are paper-based, and there are plenty of options to use fake documentation for trading.
So, in the end, one of the parties doesn’t get the payment, or the other one doesn’t get the product they are expecting. In this case enterprise, Ethereum use cases in trade finance blockchain solutions can help offer a streamlined, secured, and paperless platform for trade finance. Moreover, it can get all the players under one platform and communicate within a secure line. Making payments and tracking the shipment delivery system are two of the best features.
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Many issues plague the healthcare world drastically. Issues such as data silos, misinformation, lack of communication between the provider, patients, doctors, and hospitals. Furthermore, counterfeit drugs and false degrees often cause patients’ lives to be at stake.
So, it needs to have proper privacy and communication within the entire architecture of healthcare. And this is where the enterprise Ethereum use cases come into play. Enterprise Ethereum can offer a permissioned exchange where patients can disclose their issues without losing privacy in blockchain for healthcare solutions.
Moreover, healthcare would be a faster, better, and cost-effective option for everyone with data sovereignty. Also, it can offer a secure ledger for storing medical data or trespassing.
Media and Entertainment
Duplication of digital items and digital privacy is plaguing the entertainment and media world completely. Even if a person duplicates another person’s work, there isn’t a proper channel to give the creator-artist the credit they deserve.
Moreover, many artists don’t get the payment they are working for night and day. As a result, knockoffs, frauds, and studio intellectual properties are pirated constantly.
In this case, enterprise Ethereum use cases can offer protection against privacy. Using smart contracts can release the intellectual property right when it’s supposed to and avoid leaks from before; as a result, the industry would have increased revenue, and the artists would get what they deserve.
Oil and Gas
Even though the world is focusing on making renewable energies, oil and gas remain the fuel for the vast array of petroleum products. Although gas and oil are some of the most globally traded commodities, still the network that holds it together lacks transparency and proper infrastructure.
There’s no proper supply chain management, which decreases the revenue process. Moreover, it creates wastage of these limited resources.
Enterprise Ethereum use cases in this regard can truly help. A blockchain in oil and gas industry solution is more than enough to handle all the issues. If the enterprises use Ethereum to make gas and oil marketplace, the overall costing of maintaining, securing, and updating the trading system would be reduced.
Other associated labors and delays due to human errors won’t be there as well. Furthermore, now big enterprises can transact a big amount in private agreements easily. So, exchanging sensitive documents and auditing them within the network would be a solid plus point.
The insurance industry is facing other issues, as well. This section impacts our economy quite a lot as many enterprises are linked with this niche. However, this industry is facing fraudulent issues along with time-consuming paperwork problems.
Anyone getting insurance needs to submit a lot of forms and wait for long hours before even getting them. On the other hand, in times of need, it takes too much time for insurance claims as well. Furthermore, the auditing process is also quite crucial, and that takes up a lot of timing as well.
Enterprise Ethereum use cases can truly shine here. With the effective private ledger system, it can get rid of unnecessary paperwork. Also, it can streamline the authoring process, which fastens the insurance claiming process. Therefore, it can establish a perfect blockchain for insurance projects suited for enterprises.
For example, the company could have smart contract integration as the insurance policy, and once every document is proved authentic, the money will automatically get released. So, there’s no more exploiting consumers in any way.
There are many other ways blockchain can be used in various industries. Here’s a guide to enterprise blockchain use cases that can inspire you in your blockchain endeavors.
Ethereum Blockchain as a Service Providers
Amazon Web Services is another blockchain as a service provider for enterprise Ethereum. However, in their solution, they offer AWS blockchain templates.
This type of template will help you out if you don’t know how to start your enterprise Ethereum deployment. So, with the help of Amazon Web Services, you can focus on the applications rather than the internal structure of the network. Amazon QLDB is another different take of their solutions. However, it’s not blockchain technology.
Accenture is a big blockchain enthusiast and now offering blockchain as a service solution too. However, they have a different approach to these solutions. They are focusing mainly on consultancy; however, they still have blockchain implementation solutions for you. Let’s see what benefits they have in store.
Microsoft is also quite popular as a blockchain as a service provider. Furthermore, with their Microsoft Ethereum solution on Azure blockchain, you can jump-start your blockchain integration at any time.
Other than just offering Enterprise Ethereum solution, it also gives you a solid benchmark to work with. Furthermore, using this, you can make all kinds of tweaks to the Microsoft Ethereum solution. Therefore, customization would never be an issue here.
Kaleido is at present leading the Enterprise Ethereum blockchain as a service provider race. In partnership with ConsenSys, they are offering the best of the best SAAS operations for blockchain. According to the provider from them, you will get a scaled platform with additional features and efficiency along with template formats.
These enterprise Ethereum templates would help to jump-start your blockchain project within a short amount of time.
Here’s a guide to the popular blockchain as a service provider on the market where you can get premium services for your company.
Real-World Companies Using Enterprise Ethereum
Amalto is one of the top field data management firms that want to utilize enterprise blockchain for developing a platform that would offer the automation of order-to-cash processes (ticket-based) in the gas and oil industry.
At present, they are taking their technological support from ConsenSys’s Kaleido for that, and they would be using enterprise Ethereum for that cause. Furthermore, the venture is called Ondiflo, and it would be based in Texas, USA.
Moreover, Ondiflo will use different products already made during other ventures, such as ConsenSys’ Transportation Management System and Amalto’s Platform 6. It’s to make sure that they offer an end-to-end solution specifically for this industry.
So, in short, enterprise Ethereum will automate field services downstream, midstream, and upstream.
Open Mineral is a digital exchange platform mainly for secondary trading products and base metal raw materials. However, now Open Mineral is using enterprise Ethereum to fuel its Minerac platform. Minerac is a blockchain consortium that wants to change the way the supply chain works and how mineral commodities are traded.
Along with Open Mineral, there are other financial institutions and mining companies involved. But why are they going for blockchain? Well, it’s because mineral industries have to deal with a lot of inefficiencies, and an immutable ledger can really change the scenario.
With Minerac, you’ll be able to exchange trade documents in a secure environment, such as letters of credit, bills of lading, and many more.
A New-York based commercial bank called Signature is launching an enterprise Ethereum permissioned blockchain platform. Furthermore, they want to use this platform to offer a payment process for its institutional clients.
The platform is called Signet, and it will offer you to move your funds within 30 seconds of requesting. But your funds would first be converted to Ethereum ERC-20 and then converted back to USD for the receiver’s account.
This way, they are getting rid of the intermediately and reducing the overall costing. Moreover, it’s also saving lots of time as it usually takes about three days to process an interbank transaction.
Radiant Earth is one of the non-profit organizations that deal with Earth geospatial data and imagery to help global aid organizations to meet critical global challenges. However, now, they are using blockchain technology to license those data properly. For that, they are using enterprise Ethereum.
Furthermore, with the blockchain platform’s help, now many organizations would be able to access it more easily.
In case of any disasters, many NGOs need access to updates imagery so that they can quickly offer help and streamline the clean-up process. In the enterprise Ethereum solution, they are using proof of concept to track these geographical data’s payments and licensing process.
Anheuser-Busch InBev is one of the top brewing giants in the world. At present, they are looking for a blockchain solution to streamline their digital advertising supply chains. Furthermore, they are currently using the Kiip mobile marketing app to launch their first ad campaign. The application is using Ethereum’s blockchain to manage and track data.
In reality, the primary goal is to monitor and then ultimately expand those specific ads’ reach.
The project also includes other popular brands such as Michelob Ultra, Bud light, Estrellas, and many more. Furthermore, the project featuring Kiip’s enterprise Ethereum solution is designed to increase transparency and tackle ad fraud.
So, as a result, it reduces a lot of time for AB InBev, as they can now easily track their ad activities.
Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria or BBVA is one of the largest banks in Spain. Recently, they completed a blockchain-based syndicated loan using enterprise Ethereum. Furthermore, it’s the first real-life deal happening on the network. However, it happened on the testnet rather than the mainnet.
This project aims to see whether blockchain is capable of delivering efficiency, speed, and transparency in transactions. This is another great example of blockchain usage in enterprise companies.
In this case, several financial institutions pooled the money for the load and lent it to the borrower using the platform.
Therefore, BBVA leads the project and collectively lent €150 Million to the Red Electrica Corporation. Moreover, other legal advisors were also present on the network to see it through.
However, we still don’t know how the process of the loan did really occur, but we do know it was a huge success.
The South African Reserve Bank or SARB is leading a consortium of seven other banks for creating a blockchain-based interbank system in South Africa. Furthermore, they are aiming to offer typical daily banking volume but with additional finality and confidentiality.
At present, project Khokha using enterprise Ethereum to back up their solution. Central banks usually need a different way to increase their resiliency of the interbank payment method. Additionally, they need to reduce the cost of maintaining that system as well.
So, as a result, they are building a blockchain proof-of-concept enterprise Ethereum architecture to meet the confidentiality demand.
UnionBank of the Philippines is one of the country’s largest banks, and it’s using enterprise Ethereum to power its inter-bank payment platform. However, UnionBank of the Philippines isn’t alone in this project. It’s taking technological support from Kaleido, Diligence, Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, and seven more Philippines banks.
In short, Project i2i is creating a real-time output in a decentralized and cost-effective platform that can operate autonomously without any hassles. Furthermore, Project i2i is working to connect all rural banks and national commercial banks to the central bank. This not only improves banking but also it also offers a greater citizen satisfaction level.
ING, Citigroup, and Shell
ING, Citigroup, and Shell are leading an enterprise Ethereum consortium project called Komgo. Komgo is the product of the consortium, and it’s a blockchain-based platform. At present, they are taking technological support from Kaleido.
Komgo’s primary aim is to digitize the whole global trading system using the enterprise Ethereum architecture. So that they can establish a blockchain in trade finance standard for all trades. Furthermore, their main headquarter is located in Switzerland. There are 15 total companies in this consortium –
Societe Generale, SGS, Shell, Rabobank, Natixis, MUFG Bank, Mercuria, Macquarie, Koch Supply & Trading, ING, Gunvor, Crédit Agricole Group, Citigroup, BNP Paribas, and ABN AMRO.
Webjet is using blockchain to simplify the process of transactional disputes in the travel industry. Booking disputes are a universal nightmare for every travel industry. Furthermore, it’s even more problematic for travelers as well. The complex nature of the high volume of transactions per day is filled with failures.
That’s why Webjet wants to use enterprise Ethereum to power their project Rezchain, which will offer data reconciliation for this industry. Furthermore, with the help of Rezchain, you will see a 90% reduction in transactional disputes among their internal brands. As far as the external brands are concerned, they can also enjoy the efficiency of this platform. At present Webjet is suing Microsoft Ethereum or Ethereum solution from their Azure platform.
Lumenlab is Metlife’s global innovation center in Asia. Currently, the company is now working on a project to use blockchain for medical insurance solutions. More specifically, they are providing insurance support to people living with diabetes.
Furthermore, their project name Vitana features an automated insurance system for gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects one in five pregnant women in the Singapore region, and Lumenlab wants to offer their backup.
At present, they are using enterprise Ethereum to fuel their blockchain and currently developing the solution within the Monetary Authority of Singapore’s sandbox.
Furthermore, the blockchain project securely integrates EMR data for triggering an automatic payout to the patient if they have diabetes.
Santander is using Enterprise Ethereum to develop a digital cash system. Moreover, Santander would be the first bank to issue digital currency using the enterprise blockchain solution. Furthermore, they wish to issue banknotes to the blockchain community for encouraging the use of tokens and implement blockchain.
So, you can use the digital cash on the bank’s various branches when they launch it officially. At present, the token’s name is Cash ETH, and this token is fully backed by the fiat money in Santander.
You can access the funds using the Santander bank account and use Ethereum wallets to transact the token.
Rhombus is partnering up with Kaleido to offer off-chain data feeds to enterprise Ethereum blockchain networks. It’s not like typical enterprise blockchain projects but more of an enhancement to existing all enterprise Ethereum projects.
All the industries taking blockchain solutions from Kaleido will get this benefit as it’s directly connected to the Kaleido’s blockchain business cloud. Rhombus is a leading Oracle service provider, and together with Kaleido now, they will offer more streamlines of data.
Furthermore, these data are extremely important when it comes to smart contracts that need real-world information to function.
The World Bank and International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank are working on a collaboration where they are launching a private blockchain network. Currently, they are using Enterprise Ethereum to back up their experimentations and explorations into the DLT (Distributed Ledger Technology) system.
Furthermore, both parties create their very own digital asset called Learning Coin. No, it’s not just a token but merely a tool for aiding different institutions to learn about blockchain. Moreover, it would also help them understand how they can utilize blockchain for a more sustainable digital asset.
Another major difference between this tool with typical crypto is that it doesn’t have monetary value or is tied to any fiat money. Kaleido is supporting them as their tech provider.
UBS is working on multiple projects that are based on Enterprise Ethereum, mainly as a consortium member. However, they are finally launching their own live Ethereum Compliance Platform. The original name is Massive Autonomous Distributed Reconciliation platform, or Madrec is led by UBS. However, there are other companies such as Credit Suisse, SIX, Barclays, and many more are working together on it.
They are using Microsoft Ethereum on Azure to offer industry-wide data reconciliation process. Moreover, with the help of the platform, many companies won’t have to waste resources and time for reconciliation.
Furthermore, it will help users save money, and it won’t be at the competition’s cost.
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What Is the Long-Term Vision of Enterprise Ethereum?
Global Developer Community
Enterprise Ethereum wants to offer a global developer community to streamline blockchain development in any country without any hassles. This solution will not only streamline the blockchain implementation process of blockchain, but many countries without the reach of higher technological reach can use it.
With the help of global developers, any country or region can fully utilize the decentralized networking environment. Furthermore, it will also help the world to step into a new digital age.
Blockchain interoperability among enterprise networks is another major application point for Enterprise Ethereum. If all the enterprise blockchain networks are interoperable, they can directly communicate with each other and seal the deal.
Furthermore, utilizing this feature will help the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance members to extend their reach and promote a global networking environment. If multiple blockchain systems can communicate with each other and still maintain their personal network’s integrity, it will be a massive take on hackers.
Offering only a few vendor choices makes the Enterprise Ethereum implementation a bit stiff. At present, they only have few BAAS vendors providing their services. They want to expand this list and offer more BAAS providers for the consumer.
The more BAAS vendors, the better the innovation of blockchain can be achieved. Also, every vendor offers some of their special features along with the original blockchain.
Pleasing every company with a small list won’t be enough. And so, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance Members are expanding their reach to more providers who can offer their services to any kind of industry on the market.
Testing and Certification
Enterprise Ethereum wants to keep testing out new developments within organizations and offer certification for new achievements. So, by offering official certification, they are encouraging more companies to innovate.
Not only does it increase the technological reach, but it also makes our lives much easier. Imagine a world where everything would be based on blockchain and protected from bad players.
Who wouldn’t want that, right?
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We’ve reached the ending of our Enterprise Ethereum guide. So, you must know by now how Enterprise Ethereum can really influence real-world environments. On top of that, this platform doesn’t seem to have any limits when it comes to innovation.
However, Enterprise Ethereum doesn’t want to be the sole ruler of blockchain technology. That’s why collaboration with another enterprise, blockchain Hyperledger is in progress. Together they are changing the typical ways of the world. The public Ethereum is already established its worth to the world, and now it’s time to utilize the private platform as well.
Let’s see what Enterprise Ethereum has to offer in the coming future. But before you move on to developing solutions, you need to understand the development process. We recommend starting with our Ethereum development course, which will cover all that you need for your blockchain journey.
*Disclaimer: The article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide any investment advice. Claims made in this article do not constitute investment advice and should not be taken as such. 101 Blockchains shall not be responsible for any loss sustained by any person who relies on this article. Do your own research!