This comprehensive guide covers all fundamental concepts of web 3.0 blockchain technology stack — how it came to being, general infrastructure, Web 3.0 architecture, and possible impacts on our lives.  

Our world is changing. Now it has been changing faster than ever. Only 20 years ago the world got introduced to mobile phones. Within just ten years the world got addicted to it. You cannot even imagine a world with the internet and smart devices these days. Maybe lately, you have been buzzed with this term Web 3.0 blockchain stack. Today we will tell you everything on Web 3.0 blockchain stack and why it matters!

The world took a big leap when the e-mails got replaced with chats and emoji. But that was also ten years back. The world is hungry for new things. While everything around you started changing, the very internet grew up. It started with raw skeletons of websites made with basic HTML. Sooner websites got smarter and became interactive. Only time can tell how smart the internet will be in the era of Web 3 blockchain stack.

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Table of Contents

Chapter-1: Web 3.0 IT Stack: The Internet of the Future

Chapter-2: Web 3.0 vs web 2.0 vs web 1.0

Chapter-3: Reframing the Structure of the Web

Chapter-4: General Infrastructure Change in Web3 Blockchain Stack

Chapter-5: The Layers of the Architecture

5.1: Application Layer

5.2: Services and Optional Components

5.3: The Protocol Layer

5.4: Network and Transport Layer

5.5: Infrastructure Layer

Chapter-6: How Web 3.0 Will Change Our Lives?

Chapter-7: Concluding Remarks

Chapter-1: Web 3.0 IT Stack: The Internet of the Future

Web 3.0 IT stack is still not developed yet completely. But it’s about to come out with full-on actions. So, what is Web 3? While Web 1.0 and 2.0 had centralized servers and, Web 3.0 blockchain stack has a decentralized network which more user-centric. A transparent and secured internet that focuses on making things more humane.

There are five major significant features of Web 3.0 blockchain stack. We think these will help you to grasp the whole concept better.

web 3.0 blockchain stack

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An Internet of Everything

We are using a term these days a lot to define a device that can connect and use internet – smart. We are now surrounded by these smart devices. Are you wondering – how so? Well, take a moment and look around you. There are smart fridges, people are using home assistants like Alexa and Google Assistant, your smartphones, and tabs. All of these things can connect to the internet. They form a network of devices. They are combinedly called the Internet-of-Things (IoT). The IoT is one if most distinctive characteristics of Web 3 and blockchain and IoT are closely linked too. Sometimes, people call this phenomenon “Ubiquity”.

The purpose is to connect anything and everything to the internet. Not all the devices can connect now. We don’t have such kind of infrastructure now. But soon enough, it will be with us.

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Web 3.0 blockchain application stack is designed to be more user-centric. It focuses on being the ultimate P2P network where you could be freer, and knowledge will not be controlled by any entity. As there will be no centralized servers, all the data will be spread among the devices, and people will access them without any supervision.

The semantic metadata will help the users to connect easily. Web 3 IT stack is all about the users. People now are creating more contents than ever. Personal blogs and vlogs are being extremely popular. People don’t have to rely on media and corporate content makers. They are now simply following others. Thus, it creates a world where people will be more humane, and the internet will be more user-centric.

Artificial Intelligence

No, we are not talking about any super robot that plans to destroy humanity and create a judgment day. The AI will mainly work to provide better analysis and results for people. It sounds all the better when you think an intelligent entity will sort out the internet to find you the result that you are actually looking for.

In fact, the tech giants are already working on their AI project. Think of using YouTube, when you are listening to country rock music for a while, you will notice suggestions of other country rock or melodic rock songs. The AI is simply trying to identify your taste and suggesting the best option that you might like. They are analyzing your behavior.

Moreover, you would notice Facebook ads being changed soon after you are searching for a particular product on Google. Everything is interconnected. So, rather than using mass-marketing techniques, the future marketing strategy will be person based.

Semantic Web

Blockchain technology stack brings forward the topic called the semantic web. The semantic web simply means the method of understanding a web content like a human behavior. It is connected with machine learning and artificial intelligence. The semantic web basically tries to teach the computer to understand data and how it behaves.

While Web 2.0 depends on keywords, page authority, and domain authority to rank the content, Web3 browser tries to understand a web content like a human.

Learn the fundamentals of Web 3.0 with the Web 3.0 Flashcards.

3D Graphics and Future of Contents

Undoubtedly, web contents are now more graphical these days. People love to see and share videos and images more than plaintexts. It’s more alive and soothing for the eye. In the near futures, Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) will be a common thing. Different apps and games will have more life-like graphics and feel in it.

Also, 3D printing will not be limited to lab usages. People will use 3D printing more and it will become more available and cheaper.

How Will Web 3.0 IT Stack Function?

The bigger the change is, the more time it takes for the society to adapt to it. Undoubtedly, Web 3 IT stack is complex and common people will need both time and effort from the developers. Web 2.0 is really user-friendly and people are comfortable using it.

Experts although say that people will happily accept this technology as humankind has befriended the tech more and more in the past 2 decades. We will have to use dApp browsers to use the new apps. These apps will sooner or later replace the older techs. For example, take a look at the table below.

Use CasesOlder Technology (Web 2.0)Newer Technology (3.0)
Cloud storageGoogle Drive, Dropbox, OneDriveFilecoin, Siacon, Storj
Video calling platformSkype,
Online messengerWhatsApp, WeChatStatus
Social media platformFacebookAkasha,
Outsourcing platformUpworkEthlance
Web browserGoogle ChromeBrave

These are just a couple of web3 examples. There will more apps that will replace all the big names of today. These apps have to battle the market leaders who are ruling the market in a monopolistic way. Naturally, these apps will have better and advanced features compared to the previous ones. Only time can tell if they are good enough and win the battle of purity.

Nevertheless, Web 2.0 will not disappear totally. For example, e-mailing didn’t disappear after the appearance of smarter communication platforms. They just couldn’t win the fight against better tech.

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Fundamental Differences among the Web Platforms

Web 1.0 had a rough start. People didn’t accept the internet as it was expensive and devices were rare. Nowadays almost every single person has a mobile that has an internet connection. Back then the devices with internet connectivity were rare. The experts often call it the Read-Only era. Most of the contents were curated by professionals and people would just read the data.

Simpler techs were available. Google was still an unborn child. People would have used Yahoo! or AltaVista. These search engines focused on domain names to judge the relevance of the search results. To share files from person-to-person Napster and BitTorrent were popular. The web was neither social nor semantic. We could call it the “Simply Web”. Websites had only hyperlinks and bookmark feature and they were all static. You could only browse the contents without giving any feedback or comment. There was no communication between a user and the servers.

Web 2.0 has both the capability of reading and writing web contents. Static websites had been replaced with interactive dynamic websites. Blogs are more popular than ever. Wikipedia is the open library where you could find all the knowledge. Instant messaging became a common and natural thing for the users.

Rather than being the simple web, they are often called the “Social Web”. It has a better interaction. It can stream videos; various apps are already here. Every traditional shop has converted to online stores for better marketing facilities more sales.

Chapter-2: Web 3.0 vs Web 2.0 vs Web 1.0 — The Comparison

web 3.0 blockchain stack

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Web 1.0: The Beginning of Everything

You have all heard the jokes on a dial-up connection and how it took 200 years to download a 5Mb file, right? Back then people would mostly use the internet to maintain basic communication. Generally, you could see the use of the internet only in the big corporate offices. The number of websites was nothing compared to now. I know all the 90s kids can relate things.

Yes, things were not so good back then. But it was a beginning. It was the beginning of a new age of civilization. We would call this internet – Web 1.0.

Web 1.0 was unidirectional. The corporations and big companies created contents for people to read. There was little to no interaction with the flow of data. But things were too much boring. The contents didn’t speak of the people. The websites had long monologues filled with linear information only.

No one thought that the user number can ever cross over millions. The basic plan was to connect the information and create a database that has everything.

The users could only read the data. Only content curators could edit and write the contents. So, it was like reading books in a library. The users didn’t have much right, they were just mere consumers.

Then started the plagiarism. People started copying other’s contents and simply pasted them on their website. Unique contents became rare. It was time the internet evolved. Even the universities – the highest level of education didn’t believe in the internet. You would have to rush to libraries for simple information.

There were no social media. Without any doubt, the internet had a shaky start at the beginning. But things took a turn. The internet started to grow.

Web 2.0: The Social Revolution

The end users got benefits after Web 2.0 came to the scene. The users now could write the data as well as reading them. People realized that a framework that can handle only a million users had a serious constraint. Web 2.0 can handle billions of users. Web 2.0 has Ajax and JavaScript based frameworks. Blogs replaced the boring static web contents.

Web 2.0 also introduced video streaming, and online gaming, everything started becoming online. Websites started to become interactive and more alive. Online stores started ruling the world economy. You could tell it a true revolution. The introduction of web applications opened a horizon in the future.

But what about the future? How will the internet be in future? There is only one answer to that question – Web 3.0 blockchain technology stack.

Web 3.0: The Internet of the Future

The features of Web 3 will sound like sci-fi movies. Apart from reading and writing and the apps could execute various data. Decentralized web introduces people with semantic searching capability. In a semantic search, the search result will be even more accurate and relevant.

Web 3.0 IT stack focuses on peer-to-peer technology. So, it will rule out the middle-man. We will not have to be dependent on the gigantic data servers controlled by a private company. Our personal data will be even more secure and private. We will cut down the necessity of the word “middle-man” from the world of the internet. While Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 are called “Simply Web” and “Social Web”, experts are often calling the Web3 IT stack the “Semantic Web.”

It tries to connect knowledge in a true sense together. You could call it a beautiful connection between knowledge and technology. Let’s take a look at the comparison table of the Web 3.0 vs Web 2.0 vs Web 1.0 below to get a better insight.

When the debate comes to Web 3.0 vs Web 2.0, Web 3 is unimaginably better than its ancestor.

Apart from reading and writing, the Web 3 IT stack can execute files according to Burners-Lee. It has characteristics like semantic searches, personalized digital assistants. Also, it is the smart application-based web with better functionalities. It is the perfect combination of technology and knowledge. The Web 3 IT stack focuses on a peer-to-peer decentralized network that crushes the centralized corporate companies.

CategoriesWeb 1.0Web 2.0Web 3.0
File InteractionRead-onlyRead and writeRead, write and execute
Precedence sequence1st2nd3rd
Web TypeSimpleSocialSemantic
User CapacityMillionsBillionsTrillions
PurposeConnecting informationConnecting PeopleConnecting Knowledge
Artificial IntelligenceNot availableNot availableAvailable
ContentsCurated by experts onlyBlogging and social mediaMore personalized streams
Search EnginesDomain name speculationSEOAI-based search engines
Network TypeCentralizedCentralizedDecentralized

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Chapter-3: Reframing the Structure of the Web

What did we use to do in the past? After we had our own computer, we connected with other computers using Internet Protocols.

Remember the time when we used to save the data on a floppy disk. Those days are long gone now, Floppy disks are probably on a museum right now. However, with the invention of the internet, we started to make the data transaction faster than before.

After a 30 year of revolution in the internet data structure, we still run on the client-server protocol. The architecture hasn’t changed that much, with upgradation to the original one.

However, with the revolution of the blockchain application stack being on our midst, we can surely assume that we’ll see a lot of changes in the web architecture.

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From Centralized to Decentralized

One of the biggest flaws of the Web 2.0 and Web 1.0 is the client-server-based architecture. So, you think about it clearly, all our personal data on the internet is basically stored in a computer with a huge storage. There is no fugazy or fugazi! All of the data is owned by any private company. So, this scene poses a serious threat to our privacy.

This centralized system had caused quite the fuss over the last few years. For example, you could think of the data breach of Facebook and Apple’s i-Cloud hack. Too many sensitive data got leaked to the public. The corporate giants are controlling our lives in many ways.

On the other hand, a decentralized network is free from the threat of data breaching. None has the authority over your personal data. There won’t be any centralized server. All the data will be distributed over the whole network. Your data can be stored be in a refrigerator or toaster if they have internet access. This the true beauty of Web 3.0 blockchain technology stack – a decentralized, secured and private network that focuses on being humane.

web 3.0 blockchain stack

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Changing to Data Democracy

Peer to Peer connection was precise from 1990, however, the fame increased when we started to use sharing programs such as Tor Browser or BitTorrent.

With the revolution of the cryptocurrency, blockchain is taking this infrastructure to a whole new level. Now we can move forward to decentralize data structure from our typical centralized system.

In the latest web3, we are redesigning the data infrastructure of the internet. However, it’s important to know that, Blockchain isn’t the only technology behind this, there are lots of another decentralized web stack.

The main reason is that blockchain application stack isn’t that much ideal for storing a large amount of data as it still has scalability issue and doesn’t really have the privacy that much.

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Chapter-4: General Infrastructure Change in Web 3 IT Stack

The infrastructure of the new Web 3.0 blockchain technology stack is different than previous ones. The transition is huge and granular. But the process of changing from client-server attribute to decentralized web will not be radical.

It’s still in the maturing phase. So, the transition would first be to create e partially decentralized web and then fully convert to decentralization. However, you should also consider the fact that even if they’re more secure they are much slower than before.

However, even though the future will be more decentralized but it still won’t mean that we would completely forget about the centralized system. They also have perks and we can definitely use them to our advantage.

Chapter-5: The Layers of the Web 3.0 Architecture

web 3.0 blockchain technology stack

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Chapter-5.1: Application Layer

I’ve defined the first several layers on this one. Application layer will have the dApp browser, Application hosting, dApp, and User interfaces.

  • The dApp Browser

First of all, the first layer in the infrastructure of a Web 3.0 blockchain application architecture is the dApp browser. So, what’s a dApp browser?

A dApp browser will enable you to access the decentralized application. A regular browser like Firefox or Chrome doesn’t have the infrastructure to let you browse through the new decentralized applications that are taking over the world.

Some dApp browser gives you a full-fledged desktop browser like user-Interface. The only difference is that you can access the regular web along with the new web3 apps.

The MetaMask is one of the popular ones. It’s actually a plugin that you can add on to Mozilla, Chrome, and Brave. You won’t have to run a full node to use it, that’s why it’s so efficient.

Other browsers are Trust browser and Cipher. These also have a great output when it comes to web3 browsers. Cipher is for mobile devices and allows you to browse through all the decentralized applications and choose from them.

It’s kind of like Google App store, but here you’ll get all the decentralized apps at one place. Same goes for Trust browser, but it offers wallet services to keep track of all your cryptocurrencies to buy the apps.

  • Application Hosting

This layer is absolutely necessary to host the next layer (dApp). Ever wonder about all these apps you download, how are they actually running? Well, what the hosting does is that it makes the application available through the cloud storage.

In this way, the app will be hosted on the decentralized network that uses Software as a Service (SaaS).

The decentralized application needs this layer because this layer provides a lot of support to the users. The layer makes all the dApp easy to access and integrate with any devices.

They also have a very little risk and have a low maintenance status. Thus, helping the developer in every way.

  • Decentralized Applications

dApps are most probably one of the important layers of the web3 blockchain stack. With the evolution of the blockchain technology, these dApps are now taking over our typical centralized application system.

Now, people can connect using a peer-to-peer server network on the blockchain network. The community of dApps has gone through some serious changes in the last few years. To create a solid dApp you’ll need to have external data, computation, monetization, file storage, and payment system.

It was really difficult to build a dApp in the past years but now in 2018, it’s not a big deal anymore. The technology stack on the web3 blockchain stack is responsible for helping with the development of this layer.

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Chapter-5.2: Services and Optional Components

The second stage of layers basically goes into the technology layer. This layer covers all the important tools to create and run the dApps layer. It usually covers data feeds, Off-chain computing, Governance (DAO’s), State channels, and side chains.

Now, let’s take a closer look at the matter.

  • Data Feeds

The data feed is also known as a web feed and is one of the important aspects of a web3 blockchain stack. It’s a mechanism used for receiving updated data information from credible sources. In the new profound tech, the data feeds will obviously be decentralized.

And most importantly used for nodes to update their information accordingly.

  • Off-chain Computing

Off-chain computation speaks for itself. The process of computing is done outside the blockchain application stack. It’s comparatively less costly and time-saving than on-chain computation. Off-Chain computation will not only ensure the credibility of the values but it will also make sure that it can’t be reversed.

Off-chain compilation provides an extra layer of privacy and the perfect backup for development of a decentralized application. Virtual memory systems are the perfect example for this part.

  • Governance

You must be wondering how a decentralized system would have a governance component within it. However, it’s actually quite necessary for the certain infrastructure of the web3 IT stack.

In this case, there won’t be a need for any human managerial character. A decentralized autonomous organization is perfect for developers to utilize for their projects. These organizations deal with smart contracts.

A DAO initially runs on the protocol of decentralization for blockchain technology stack.

  • State Channels

State Channels are just a two-way pathway between two peers who want to communicate with each other through the means of transaction. Every user on the channel will have to sign their transactions with their private key to ensure they are fully authorized and coming from the real user.

These channels are also private only available for participants. However, these channels come with a limited timeframe, which means they will disappear after a predetermined timeframe.

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Optional Components

  • Multi-Signature

Multi-Signature is an important part of the web3 tier architecture. This signature enables security in the transaction by providing a unique sign. These addresses would require any user to sign a transaction within the web before he/she transmits the package.

You can decide how many signatures you want or are required to provide before you create the address.

BitGo first launched this new technology and now is being used extensively in web 3.0 blockchain stack. That’s why they are one of the necessities in the web 3.0 blockchain application architecture.

  • Oracle

Oracles are a form of data feeds used in the blockchain network to support smart contracts. They act as an agent, who finds out information about the real-world situation and carries that information to the smart contracts.

Why? Well, that’s because blockchain network doesn’t have any access to the outside world. So, if the network wants to run smart contracts or needs any type of information outside the network, it’ll have to access the information through other means.

To unlock certain conditions in the smart contract, it requires a certain value. Once it gets all the value from the Oracles, it can then proceed as instructed.

So, Oracles actually work as the provider of those values. It could be anything, some kind of market evaluation, or payments, or anything.

An oracle is one of the essential parts of the blockchain web 3.0 technology stack. Without it, the network won’t be able to function properly.

  • Wallet

By wallet in blockchain application architecture, I mean digital wallets or cryptocurrency wallets. They are programs that store public and private keys of a user and interacts with other blockchain networks. With these, you’ll be able to monitor your digital assets such as bitcoin, Ethereum, Lite coin and many more.

  • Digital Assets

Digital assets can be many things. But in this blockchain world, it now goes to cryptocurrencies. The new web 3.0 blockchain stack offers the utilization of these currencies. You can also see images, multimedia, textual contracts as digital assets.

These are one of the services that the web 3.0 blockchain technology stack will provide. The web 3.0 IT stack is the new revolution of the digital web 3 tier architecture.

  • Smart Contracts

The smart contract simply gets rid of the middleman altogether. You won’t have to deal with trust issues and will be able to exchange your valuables such as money, shares or property and even tokens in a conflict-free way.

The smart contract is based on the agreement of the parties. The rules are set from before and after the execution of those rules, everyone will get their fair share of the money. It’s all automated so there isn’t any influence of higher authority.

Usually, typical contacts have many flaws but here the escrowed money drops into the team member’s account right after completing those tasks. The process is extremely transparent.

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  • Digital Identity

Digital identity is extremely crucial for the web 3.0 blockchain application architecture, as everyone will be connected through online. So, it’s necessary to have a digital id that defines you or authorizes you where it’s needed.

You can have multiple digital ids in various platforms where it’s required. Nevertheless, a digital identity will ensure your security and privacy altogether.

A digital identity will have some certain attributes, such as:

  1. Your username and password.
  2. Date of birth.
  3. Your online activity.
  4. Social security number.
  5. Transaction history
  6. Medical records.

A digital Id can be used to link to other assets such as domains, emails, URLs, etc. In a world, where cybercrime is rising it’s definitely a necessity.

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  • Distributed File Stores

A distributed file Store or System is a server location where data is stored. You can access the data as you please as you would have with your computer. The process is more convenient though.

The server will require authentication to access and after that give full control to that authorized client only.

Chapter-5.3: The Protocol Layer

The network layer covers the different consensus algorithms, participation requirements, Virtual Machines and many more. Let’s take a closer look at them.

  • Consensus Algorithms

Blockchains use consensus algorithms to ensure that the nodes come to an agreement. It’s a great process to make the network more efficient. Why? Well, they add a new level of reliability even with unreliable nodes.

The issue here is to solve the known consensus problem. Mainly if the network has multi-agent systems and distributed computing protocols.

For making this real, the algorithm has to think that some of the nodes will surely be unavailable and the network will have data losses. This makes the algorithm a fault tolerate machine. Making it fault tolerant right from the start will increase the efficiency of the network as it will be prepared for it even if it doesn’t occur.

There are many developers currently experimenting with the algorithm nonstop. The goal is to make one that offers the most effective to the users. Let’s see what few of the blockchain technology offer nowadays.

  1. ASIC-optimized proof of work (POW) – Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash
  2. ASIC-resistant POW – Ethereum 1.0, Zcash, Monero, others
  3. POW and POS with fallback – Thunder
  4. Proof of elapsed time (POET) and proof of space and time (POST) – Chia
  5. POST with useful data – Filecoin
  6. Braided POW – Kadena
  7. Casper TFG proof of stake (POS) – Ethereum 2.0
  8. Hybrid POS/ POW – Decred
  9. Byzantine agreement with leader election (BA⋆) – Algorand
  10. Honeybadger POS – Polkadot
  11. Delegated proof of stake (DPOS) – EOS
  12. DPOS variant – Tezos
  13. DPOS variant – Tendermint
  14. Proof of history (POH) – Solana
  15. Stellar Consensus Protocol
  16. Ripple Consensus Protocol
  17. Leader-centered blockchain consensus
  • Side Chains

Some people confuse sidechains with state channels. However, the difference is huge. Sidechain is a unique kind of emerging mechanism introduced to allow tokens or other assets to go from the mother blockchain to a separate blockchain and then back again.

Sidechain holds tremendous potential for developers. Developers can easily develop decentralized applications within the sidechain without influencing the main chain in any way. However, everyone on the network will be able to utilize the effectiveness of the apps.

They are independent cells of different blockchain network, who has to provide the security themselves. So, they can be hacked. However, if a sidechain gets compromised it would only affect that one and leave the others unaffected.

  • Participation Requirements

This mainly refers to the different types of blockchain network, which will also reflect on the web3 IT stack. The new decentralized platform of the web3 blockchain has mainly three types of infrastructure.

One is public or permissionless blockchain where any user can join the network without the need for any conditions getting met. So, they can download the protocols offered by the network without any hassles.

On the other hand, private or permissioned networks would require to meet certain terms in order to join as a member and use the protocols or other benefits offered by the network itself.

  • Virtual Machine

It’s another important factor of the blockchain application architecture. Virtual machines or mainly Ethereum virtual machine is quite popular now among all the new blockchain technology system.

The virtual machines main focus is maintaining the security and execute unreliable code source from all the computers on the network. In simple terms, EVM is now here, to prevent the most common threat of the crypto world, which is a Denial-of-service attack.

This kind of cyber-attack is quite deadly as it can make the resources of a network unavailable to its user. It can also, ensure that no programs can interfere with each other tasks and that everything keeps on running smoothly.

This environment was constructed to enable a runtime environment for smart contracts so that users can benefit from the service. You must be well aware of the fact that smart contracts are insanely popular nowadays.

To make it more secure and conduct a transaction without any interference virtual machines are really helpful.

Let’s see the different types of virtual machines or state transition machines used by different blockchains.

  1. Ethereum 1.0, WANchain, Hashgraph, Ethermint, and others – Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)
  2. Solana, Cardano – Direct LLVM exposure
  3. Ethereum 2.0, EOS, Dfinity, Polkadot – Web Assembly Virtual Machine (WASM)
  4. Kadena, Corda, Tezos and Rchain ues their very own custom-made state transition machines.

Why Do These Platforms Use Their Customized Virtual Machines?

Well, the problem is that everyone has a different view when it comes to blockchains and security. Kadena sees the smart contracts as a human-readable technology that’s why they choose to go down that road.

On the other hand, Rchain allows smart contracts to run on different dApps but they need to be verified first.

Tezos also follows this verification rule before allowing anyone to create a contract or be part of one.

Corda wants to ensure the highest level of decentralization as possible. That’s why they run through SNARKs every time to guarantee the complete node verification and increases the probability of integrity thereafter.

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Chapter-5.4: Network and Transport Layer

The network layer mainly consists of RLPx, Roll your Own, and Trusted Execution Environment (TEE). Let’s see what they are.

  • RLPx

RLPx is a network and protocol suite created to aid in general purpose transportation between two peers. It also enables an interface for applications so that users can communicate within the network.

It was designed for decentralized applications and currently, Ethereum is using it.

The newer version of RLPx is providing a network layer for Ethereum.

The main features of this awesome technology are to discover nodes and form the overall network. Other than then it also encrypts handshakes and transports between two users.

It also is used to frame different protocols and controls the overall flow of data on the network. RLPx is used for preferring certain peers for decision-making and other purposes.

It also enables authentic connectivity within the p2p network. We all know how blockchain application architecture needs a massive amount of security to run and this can be the best way to do it. As the web 3 tier architecture is decentralized, adding an authentication discovery protocol and encrypting the transport channel will surely benefit a lot.

With the integration of RLPx peers can now seamlessly connect with the new web 3 tier architecture without a problem.

  • Roll Your Own

Roll Your Own is a process used only when standard protocols won’t go with your infrastructure. This method enables a user to create their custom protocol to better adjust to their needs.

The best practice for common users is to use standard protocols. However, not every protocol works with every physical layer and with all the new blockchain technology on the rise keeping this option on the network is a plus point.

Every blockchain network brings something new on the table. So, an option to create custom protocols will ensure creativity and potential growth of the overall web 3 tier architecture.

  • Trusted Execution Environment

Trusted Execution Environment is one of the important components of this web 3 tier architecture. Why? Because the blockchains have scalability issue and to overcome this matter it needs to add a system that eliminates or reduces this problem to a great extent.

Practically TEE is actually an isolated area or server away from the main network or system. TEE allows data being stored on the network and also ensures the safety of that information.

As the web 3.0, IT stack has a decentralized infrastructure, it’s only logical to integrate TEE on the system and provide end-to-end security and confidentiality to the whole system.

  • Block Delivery Network

Block delivery network is a distributed network system that delivers pages or other web contents to any user who requests it.

The system delivers these contents based on the location, server, and origin of the webpage. This service really comes in handy for websites that have a really high traffic and is globally recognized.

These servers are located all across the world and give backup support to the users. If you are close to these servers you will likely gate the requested data faster than those who are at a distance.

The block delivery network caches the content from a site and then delivers it to the user on one of their servers.

Some of its functions are:

  1. Security in Peripheral Access – Directly accesses and secures the user interface and offers additional support for cameras, fingerprints and so on.
  2. Security in Communication – Cryptographic operations, encryption keys.
  3. Device identity and Authentication Procedure – The TEE gets rid of all the security loops and gives a unique id to your device. Any login from other devices would alert the system right away.

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Chapter-5.5: Infrastructure Layer

  • Mining as A Service

Mining is a big word in the crypto world now. It first came to be from bitcoin and now have spread throughout the web3 blockchain stack system. The decentralized web now requires this opportunity as a service.

There are many companies now that offer Mining as a service. One of the examples is DMG. They offer a MaaS solution to investors or individuals who want to target this at an industrial scale.

They’ll get a steady flow of revenue and all, the miners would get their fair share of the profit. The decentralized web now ensures this new type of business strategy.

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  • Network

The network of the main web 3.0 IT stack is decentralized. The network doesn’t require any central authority for maintaining the system. So, every user will get the privacy they so wish for.

The process goes exactly as blockchain network but with added scalability. As the web3 IT Stack will now run on this type of network it will get its very own web3 browser. All these web3 browsers will be decentralized also.

Blockchain applications running on the network will also be decentralized, but as for the initial phase, it should run both established centralized apps and decentralized apps.

So, blockchain application stacks would have the same structure as the dApps.

  • Virtualization

Virtualization means creating a virtual resource such as desktop, server, OS, network, storage, etc. It will transform traditional computing and manage workloads more scalable than before.

It has been around for decades now and is finally showing its full potential with the new web 3.0 blockchain structure. Now you can apply it to almost all the layers of the IT structure.

Operating as hardware level, system level, and server level it can truly change the way we look at things right now.

Each layer has their own set of complexity and authorization but they are inter accessible. This technology reduces the cost of deployment, resources, operational costs and many more.

  • Computing

By computing, I mean distributed computing. It’s a concept where multiple computers work on a single problem to solve it. It saves a lot of time and makes it easier than before. A single problem can get divided into many parts and then distributed across the network.

After that, a group of participating computers will solve the problem and be connected to each other through the network. So, for solving the problems, all the computers will act as one single entity.

How do they do it? Well, they are all connected by a lightweight software agent. The agents send data to the server whenever it finds an idle machine for computation and then it assigns that a task.

This is the same process as mining cryptocurrencies or bitcoin. All the miners can work like a unit and solve the problem and then get rewarded after that.

  • Nodes

What’s a node? A decentralized web consists of thousands and thousands of node, so it’s likely to raise the question. It’s the point of interaction of a network. In any virtual environment, every device accessible will be called a node.

These are the major center points where internet traffics are mainly routed to their destination. On a decentralized wed they keep track of the transaction and update or make a decision seamlessly.

Nodes are the reason that the decentralized web was possible to create. The idea came to be from the packet switching theory and now is established as the root of a blockchain web platform or web 3.0 blockchain technology stack.

However, some networks might have higher authority nodes that are chosen for making a big decision or distributing tasks among other nodes.

As every node has the same information, a loss of a node won’t affect the network that much. The whole web 3.0 blockchain technology stack is designed that way.

  • Tokens

Tokens are also a part of the web 3.0 IT stack infrastructure. With the decentralized web system, it’s a matter of fact that these will also get included. Tokens, mainly crypto tokens are digital currencies that work on their individual blockchain network.

It’s an asset and one can use the asset on the network to get the features the network offers. These are also used for funding any new project and initialized the development of the project.

In the new version of the decentralized web, it’s quite normal to include a token system as a fundraising option. Tokens can represent a new cryptocurrency or have a completely different use on the system.

You can use some of the tokens to buy off other cryptocurrencies as well. Nevertheless, it’s a tradable and transferrable asset on the web 3.0 blockchain application architecture infrastructure.

  • Storage

All the storages nowadays are mostly centralized and they have a higher risk of vulnerabilities. It’s not uncommon for hackers to hack these centralized storage units and steal all your private information.

That’s why the new infrastructure has a decentralized storage unit that ensures a better and more secure environment.

It’s the potential solution to all the problems. The system would help you to store your personal information without having to rely on a third party that doesn’t value the privacy of your information.

The thought of decentralized cloud storage was brought up by blockchain technologies. They are comparatively cheaper, resistant, and distributed than existing cloud solutions.

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Chapter-6: How Web 3.0 Will Change Our Lives?

Big names in the IT industry are now playing monopoly with information. As we have entered the age of information, the value of information is sure to skyrocket. Web 3 IT stack will be a big hit in the face of these corporate companies. It will be decentralized and more democratic. We will soon see changes in our daily lives.

Cryptocurrencies are already in a battle with the federal banks and governments. The world’s first blockchain mobile phone is here. Thanks to Foxconn. Platforms will become trustless. People’s personal information will no longer become a product for sale.

We are already witnessing changes around us. Zug, a city of Switzerland has registered all its citizen’s IDs on an Ethereum blockchain.

Websites like the Pirate Bay have taken countless strikes by various governments due to copyright issues. But the website is extremely popular among the common users. Governments have taken down lots of domains. So, websites like the pirate bay will be safe from such forceful actions from the governments.

The users can now take a sound sleep as their private information will be more secured due to enhanced encryption of the structure. Decentralization will make the rebellious hackers happier.

Various apps will take over the major websites like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Google Drive, and popular browsers. Decentralized apps will become the thing of tomorrow.

In short, the very world of the internet as we know it will change its nature.

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Web 3.0 IT Stack: How Will It be and Is It Here Yet?

When the world started ripping the goods of the Web 2.0, it was already 5-6 years older. It took about ten years to fully develop Web 2.0. Web3 browser might take even longer to fully develop, as it changes the whole infrastructure. The main problem will be with ubiquity as our infrastructure is not mature enough.

Moreover, we might see an epic battle among the centralized big names and now decentralized apps. The traditional system will obviously try to resist. Some though say that Web3 browser is already alive. They are neither correct nor wrong. It’s true that a lot of features of Web 3 is out there. But it’s just the beginning. It will take a lot more time to be fully here. Still, some experts say that we entered the era of the decentralized web in 2015.

But the change is inevitable. It’s only human nature to be afraid of the unknown and new things. But once we understand the benefit and final result, we will accept the change sooner or later.

You cannot find a decent distinctive definition of decentralized we as we don’t know how it will turn out to be. Right now, we can only predict the future.

The world has already bowed down to the Web 2.0 for its unimaginable positive feedback. The offices, the homes, and the business have witnessed drastic change since the beginning of Web 2.0.

It goes without saying that Web 3.0 blockchain stack is going to be the next big thing and it will impact our lives from every single aspect.

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Web 3.0: How It Came to Being?

The Past of Web 3.0 IT Stack

Famous American Scientist Tim Burners-Lee first told the world about the semantic web in 2001. He is sometimes considered as the inventor on WWW. Again, he envisions it to be a new form of web content that computers can understand. He often called the semantic web an extension of the current system rather than calling it a different environment of computing.

While files were mostly read-only in 2001 as Web 2.0 was still unborn, Burners-Lee said the Web 3.0 IT stack or the semantic web will read, write and execute the files.

How Complex Web 3.0 IT Stack is?

The complexity of the decentralized web knows no bound. The Web 3.0 blockchain technology stack is extremely complicated. The frameworks get redefined and new language get set. Such things were envisioned when the world only had Web 1.0.

As the contents of Web 3 IT stack are completely made by users, there could be a possibility of a barren internet. Although it seems unlikely as we are witnessing common people to create new contents every moment. If there are no natural practices among the users to create new contents, Web3 IT stack will take a major hit.

Scalability is a very big issue for the decentralized web to come around with. Moreover, the world doesn’t have good enough infrastructure to establish the perfect environment for Web 3.0. Still, its future depends on how the decentralized web community work to mitigate the flaws that the system currently has.

Web 3.0 IT Stack: Present Scenario

The Web 3.0 blockchain structure is quite familiar to the layer cake. Currently, Different start-ups working relentlessly establish the perfect decentralized apps that will make the life of the users easier. All the big names are working on artificial intelligence (AI) projects. Brave is already here with their cutting-edge browsers. Only time can tell how quickly the world will accept this wonderful technology.

Such activities from the young minds of the world indicate that the future will be very bright. Things will be safer, easier and more user-oriented.

All the data are now linked and interconnected creating a network of data.

Google Freebase

Many developers are trying to perfect the process of linking data throughout the network. Google Freebase is one of the finest examples of projects working for it. They use a graph-based database. Unfortunately, Google shut down the Freebase service in mid-2016.

Freebase had tons of data on various topics. Data of people, geographical location and entertainment get basically stored here on Freebase. The Freebase was almost like Wikipedia in some fundamental way.

Wikidata and Wikimedia are some projects that tried to establish the free database of knowledge. Both humans and computers could read, write and execute the information on the database.

After shutting down the Freebase project, Google started working on the Knowledge Graph project. Knowledge Graph mostly works to redefine the search results so that people could get the right information without any hassle.

Assistants Becoming Intelligent: Siri and Google Now

Siri has made people wonder with her impressive speech recognition and her effort to act as a regular user. It’s mainly here to help the users to complete tasks with ease.

Siri can take care of the hotel or restaurant reservation, analyzing flight conditions, Although, Siri started her journey on iPhone and MacBook, she is now active on various devices.

Not only Siri but also Google Now has lots of fans. All you got to do is ask Google Now for things. It can search for the internet, make reservations, and communicate with another human without the necessity of human guidance.

Such smart assistants will be a common scenario in the future as well as for Web 3.0 blockchain. Alexa and some other assistants are now that far behind.

Interoperating and Sharing Ecosystem

The rapidly maturing web 3.0 blockchain stack is emerging as the new successor. Many services are offering public access to APIs, which will allow developers to develop independently and makes the system even more robust.

The environment is a huge deal in this case. It will not allow semantic technologies to co-operate but it will also solve the problem from the root. However, developing those semantic representations are entirely complex.

The only way to achieve this ecosystem is to make the language or system more natural and machine-readable.

For representing a semantic web with the future semantic application, organizations can come together and build an ecosystem of co-operation. They can all contribute a piece of the solution and structure the whole network with a machine-friendly language.

However, one service can surely catch the meaning of the complex text but coming together the process would be more efficient and time-saving.

This powerful semantic technology, semi-structured data and a rich ecosystem will ensure the creation of the web 3.0 blockchain stack. It’s a community where everybody gets to win.

What does the Future of Semantic Web look like?

The future of semantic web consists of many promising sights so far. The imagination or development behind it was not unrealistic. However, many of the main factors of the World Wide Web is missing from the context and it’s a questionable fact indeed.

The technology is far more complex than previous versions and the subject matter is becoming too abstract. However, with more improvements, it can surely become the one we so desired.

There are many successful models now on the internet on the blockchain technology stack, but none of them actually covers the true zest of the whole architecture.

However, the primary presence of this new web should come on a smaller working scale and then grow larger. The change won’t happen overnight, it will take time.

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Chapter-7: Concluding Remarks

In the world of blockchain and decentralized web, it’s only normal that we would get a newer version of the web system. In this case, we got web 3.0 IT stack, though the process is still on its way and has a lot of improvements we can still hope for a better digital experience now.

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*Disclaimer: The article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide any investment advice. Claims made in this article do not constitute investment advice and should not be taken as such. 101 Blockchains shall not be responsible for any loss sustained by any person who relies on this article. Do your own research!