Blockchain offered the flexibility for designing decentralized applications and created a unique type of revolution. Now, decentralized applications or dApps have evolved as the basic ingredients for fuelling the web3 movement. Decentralized applications empower users with control over their data, digital assets and online experiences. The total revenue for the global dApps market could amount to almost $368 billion by 2027. As the demand for dApps grows, the necessity for hiring dApp developers will also expand significantly. Therefore, aspiring developers seek the top languages for dApp developers to establish their claim for top jobs. Developers with the skills for creating decentralized applications based on blockchain technology could serve as vital assets for any organization or project dealing with dApps.

Any beginner seeking answers for “Which language is best for dApps?” must reflect on the benefits of dApps. In addition, you must also identify how different programming languages serve distinct advantages in the process of developing decentralized applications. The following post offers an overview of these aspects alongside a comprehensive outline of top languages every dApp developer must learn.

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Why Should You Learn Languages for dApp Development?

The first thing on your mind right now must be the list of reasons for which you should learn dApp development languages. You can find the most prominent reason to learn programming languages for dApp developers in the foundation of dApps, i.e. blockchain. Blockchain technology has offered significant value improvements over conventional applications. For example, blockchain offers the benefit of immutability, which removes the concerns of any unauthorized modifications in application data. 

The quest for finding the best language for dApp development would also reflect on how dApps follow an innovative peer-to-peer architecture. Decentralized applications support transparency in transactions alongside maintaining better privacy and security of data. Therefore, the adoption dApps has been increasing profoundly due to the cost-effective, secure app development benefits. Businesses could make faster decisions and empower users with decentralized access to their services. 

In addition, decentralized apps are expanding beyond the domain of finance into other sectors such as gaming, supply chain management, manufacturing and healthcare. As the tides of technology gain volume in the future, the possibilities for using decentralized apps with AI and IoT will also become more evident. The sheer potential of dApps for revolutionizing conventional digital experiences and fostering the rise of web3 present viable reasons for learning dApp programming languages. 

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Types of Blockchain Programming Languages

The rising demand for experts in dApp development has been a prominent driver for competition in the blockchain labor market. With average annual salaries starting from $70,000 and ranging up to $250,000, dApp developers could explore career opportunities in different roles. Proficiency in the top programming languages for dApp developers is one of the primary prerequisites for outsmarting competition in the job market. However, it is also important to note the different types of programming languages used by dApp developers. The two distinct categories of programming languages required in dApp development are,

Let us learn about the categories of programming languages for dApp developers before identifying the top languages.

  • Front-end and Backend Programming Languages

Front-end and back-end development languages are a common requirement in conventional web2 development approaches. As the names imply, front-end and back-end programming languages help in creating the front-end and back-end infrastructure for an application. The common front-end programming languages for dApp developers include Python, JavaScript and HTML. The outline of top languages for dApp developers also includes backend programming languages, including C++, Rust and Golang. 

  • Smart Contract Programming Languages

Smart contracts are the most crucial requirement in decentralized application development. Decentralized apps use smart contracts to enable the automatic execution of agreements for transactions on a blockchain network. Smart contracts serve as a foundational element in the web3 industry, while smart contract programmability opens up the possibilities for developing dApps for unique use cases. If you seek the best language for dApp development, you must understand how smart contract programming languages establish the distinction between web2 and web3 development. Smart contracts are a comparatively new technology and imply the need for specialized languages to create contracts for different use cases. Some of the popular smart contract programming languages include Solidity, Golang, Vyper, and Rust.

Best Languages for dApp Developers

The staggering growth of the dApp market, alongside new and innovative use cases of blockchain, has fuelled the demand for professional dApp developers. If you want to become a part of the dApp/blockchain/web3 revolution, then you must familiarize yourself with the following programming languages. 

Top Languages For Dapp Developers

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1. Solidity


The list of answers for “Which language is best for dApps?” would start with Solidity, the most popular language for smart contract development. Solidity has been created solely for the purpose of enabling smart contract programmability on Ethereum and other EVM-compatible blockchain networks. Therefore, Solidity has been described as a DSL or Domain Specific Language. 

Solidity leverages high-level and object-oriented programming concepts for developing smart contracts. The programming language features inspiration from elements in Python, C++ and JavaScript, thereby making it easier to learn. At the same time, Solidity also inherits some of the most favorable features of these high-level programming languages. In addition, Solidity also guarantees prominent value advantages such as a developer-friendly environment and accessibility of JavaScript infrastructures. Some of the popular blockchain networks which use Solidity include Ethereum Classic, Hedera, Avalanche and Binance.

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2. Python 


The next top choice among programming languages for dApp development would refer to Python. It is a high-level, general-purpose programming language for developing blockchain applications. Python qualifies as one of the top programming languages for dApp developers with its code readability and clear syntax. On top of it, Python also provides a massive collection of tools and libraries which can support the complexities in the logic of decentralized applications

The simplicity of syntax serves as the foremost strength of Python, which helps inexperienced programmers learn development without the need for complex lines of code. Furthermore, Python does not feature any reserved terms, which could create doubts for experienced programmers. The dynamic object-oriented programming language also serves a critical role in prototyping. Most important of all, Python has emerged as a popular asset in the field of Blockchain-as-a-Service applications. Some of the notable blockchain solutions leveraging Python include NEO, Steem and Hyperledger Fabric.

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3. Golang


The reputation of Golang as one of the top languages for dApp developers has gained profound momentum in recent times. It is a statically typed and compiled programming language favored by dApp developers worldwide for its different unique features. First of all, Go programming language offers ease of use and its developer-friendly syntax enables an easier learning curve. Some of the notable features in Golang include garbage collection, organized syntax, seamless web app development and improvements in run-time efficiency. 

Golang uses unique methods, known as Goroutines, which help in running different programs simultaneously. Go programming language arrived in 2012 and has evolved as a popular multipurpose language with a set of robust features. One of the unique features of Golang is the support for parallel processing, which makes it one of the top choices for blockchain-based projects. Go offers the features of user-friendly development and clear syntax like JavaScript and Python. At the same time, it also ensures the benefits of security and performance at par with that of C.

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4. Rust 


The choices of top programming languages for dApp developers would also include Rust, another general-purpose programming language for blockchain-based applications. It was introduced in 2006 and has been recognized for its features of security, immutability and innovation. The prominent features in Rust for dApp development include concurrency, memory security and type safety. 

Developers can find significance similarities in the syntaxes of C++ and Rust, albeit with notable improvements in the latter. Rust programming language includes pattern matching and concurrency, which have served as the reasons for popular tech companies, such as Dropbox and Discord adopting the language. In addition, Rust also offers flexibility for designing effective and faster frameworks with concurrency and improved memory options.

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5. JavaScript


The leader among front-end programming languages for dApp developers, JavaScript also deserves a top spot in this list. The most interesting highlight about JavaScript as the best language for dApp development focuses on its multi-paradigm nature. JavaScript has served as a popular choice for web2 development, with Google, Netflix, Twitter and Facebook using it for their websites. 

JavaScript has all the ingredients for supporting dApp development with continuous improvements in its list of features. The libraries and frameworks of JavaScript, including Node, jQuery and Angular, have built the foundations of modern web development. Now, web3 libraries such as web3.js and ethers.js based on JavaScript offer flexible tools for dApp development. 

6. Rholang


The outline of responses for “Which language is best for dApps?” also brings Rholang into the limelight. Rholang is a popular alternative to Solidity as a smart contract programming language with a distinct approach. It utilizes a functional approach for code development over the object-oriented model, thereby helping developers in creating faster, secure and reliable code. 

Rholang evaluates every dApp project in the form of a collection of functions, which it has to resolve in a sequence. The functions are executed over the Rchain world, which is a decentralized platform operating over an internet protocol. Rholang utilizes formal verification for checking errors in code before the final deployment. In addition, Rholang also utilizes state channels for processing transactions without the need for exposing sensitive information.

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7. C++ 


C++ also finds its way to a list of top languages for dApp developers for its role in the development of dApps, such as crypto mining software. The foremost benefit of C++ refers to the ease of application development on Windows, Linux, iOS, macOS and other operating system platforms. It can also offer the advantage of creating secure blockchain solutions. 

The significant highlights of C++ which make it useful for dApp development include object-oriented programming, semantics and multi-threading. Interestingly, the first-ever application of blockchain, i.e. Bitcoin cryptocurrency, was created by using C++. It is the most frequently used programming language for dApp development on the EOS blockchain

8. Vyper 


Another popular smart contract programming language among top programming languages for dApp developers would refer to Vyper. It has been created solely for dApp development as you can use it for implementing and interacting with smart contracts on EVM-compatible blockchain networks. The syntax of Vyper is almost the same as that of Python, thereby making it easier to learn. 

On top of it, the advantage of security with Vyper also supports its application in dApp development. While anyone could understand the Vyper code, it features different barriers which prevent manipulation of the code. Vyper also includes strong typing, which ensures that a specific type of database could not be utilized for another purpose. 

9. C#


The final addition in the list of best programming languages for dApp development would refer to another multi-paradigm language, C#. It was introduced as a replacement for C++ as the primary language for video game development. C# is the most preferred programming language for cross-platform development and creation of cloud apps or enterprise-powered apps. 

C# qualifies as the best language for dApp development with its open source nature and ease of learning. The comprehensive library class of C# prove its potential for development of distributed systems, smart contracts and dApps. Furthermore, it also offers support for memory loss which simplifies the dApp development process.

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Bottom Line

The discussion on top programming languages for dApp developers revealed some powerful languages with unique value advantages. Most important of all, the distinction between front-end and backend programming languages and smart contract programming languages offers a reasonable foundation for choosing dApp programming languages. Interestingly, developers could find many of the popular choices in traditional web2 programming as favorable contenders for dApp development. The need for dApps would continue growing with the expansion of blockchain technology. On top of it, the drive towards web3 solutions would also create new opportunities for dApp developers. Start exploring your career prospects in blockchain development and choose the best learning resources to become a dApp developer. 

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*Disclaimer: The article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide any investment advice. Claims made in this article do not constitute investment advice and should not be taken as such. 101 Blockchains shall not be responsible for any loss sustained by any person who relies on this article. Do your own research!